If you’re a lieutenant commander on the U.S.S. Enterprise, and your name is Spock, it’s a given that you’re all about logic.
If you’re not Spock or a Vulcan (I’m assuming you’re not either of these), you might be guilty of faulty logic and might end up with at least one logical fallacy in your paper.
The trick, of course, is knowing how to identify logical fallacies in order to avoid them in your own writing.
10 Logical Fallacies That Will Kill Your Argument
As you read the list of logical fallacies, keep these points in mind:
- A fallacy is a deceptive or misleading idea or an unsound argument.
- A logical fallacy is, in the most basic of terms, a flaw in logic.
- Logical fallacies use irrelevant arguments and/or faulty evidence that doesn’t support a claim.
- Logical fallacies make your argument invalid.
1. Slippery slope
The slippery slope fallacy is the false assumption that one thing will lead to another.
Slippery slope example: If fast-food restaurants display the calories in value meals, consumers won’t want to eat value meals, and all fast-food restaurants will go out of business.
That’s a pretty big leap, isn’t it? Posting the calories in a value meal may mean that some people will make healthier choices, but you can’t simply state that listing calories will shut down an entire type of restaurant.
Of course, there are times when one thing will most certainly lead to another (like chemical reactions). If you empty a box of baking soda into your kitchen drain then pour vinegar to wash it down, the chemical reaction will cause the mixture to fizz.
It will do this every time without fail. One action leads to another.
2. Hasty generalization
This refers to drawing inaccurate conclusions based on information (or insufficient information).
Hasty generalization example: If you’re hunting for morel mushrooms and find one in a wooded area, you might think that you’ve hit the jackpot. You’ll surely find more with each step you’ll take.
Basing your expectations of finding more mushrooms on seeing one single mushroom means that you’ve developed a conclusion on insufficient evidence.
You would need to find at least a few mushrooms on more than one occasion in order to argue that the wooded area is a good spot to find morels.
3. Ad hominem
You’re guilty of using an ad hominem logical fallacy if you attack a person’s character rather than the person’s arguments.
Ad hominem example: The governor’s speech about the education plan must be a lie because he’s a known liar. After all, he cheats on his wife.
This example is a logical fallacy because it attacks the person’s moral values and his character (accusing him of being an adulterer). The real argument in this case is his speech and education plan, not his personal life.
4. Straw man
When you think of the straw man fallacy, think of the Big Bad Wolf from The Three Little Pigs. When he wants to attack the pigs, where does he go first? That’s right, the house made of straw. Why? Because it’s a flimsy structure. It’s weak and easy to blow down.
If you’re using a straw man argument, you over-simplify the argument and pick your opponent’s weakest point as the one to argue against.
Straw man example: People who don’t donate to the ASPCA must hate animals.
In this example, you’re trying to argue that a person’s failure to donate to a specific charity means the person doesn’t support the charity’s mission (in this case, preventing cruelty to animals).
Obviously, an argument is much more complex than this, and people may have many reasons for not supporting individual charities.
5. Circular argument
Ever get in a discussion with a friend and tell him he’s talking in circles? The circular argument logical fallacy is kind of like that. You simply restate the argument without providing any evidence to support the argument.
Circular argument example: Our coach is a good leader because he knows how to provide direction.
This is a circular argument because being a leader is synonymous with providing direction. To avoid this fallacy, you should provide reasons he is a good leader. For instance, he might know his players well and understand strategy.
Need help finding sources to support your argument? Check out 5 Best Resources to Help With Writing a Research Paper.
6. Ad populum
This logical fallacy plays on people’s emotions. It often focuses on concepts such as patriotism, religion, terrorism, etc.
Ad populum example: As an American, you should support people’s right to get tattoos.
In this example, you’re appealing to people’s feelings of what it means to be an American and connecting two unrelated concepts: being American and getting tattoos.
7. Red herring
This fallacy doesn’t have anything to do with fish, but if you’ve ever watched a political debate, you’ve likely seen the red herring fallacy in action.
Rather than address the argument directly, a person (like a politician) uses a red herring to divert attention from the actual argument by bringing up an unrelated point.
Red herring example: A politician might argue that the drinking water may have unsafe levels of lead, but the real issue is the level of scrutiny the city is facing.
Here, the politician doesn’t address the problem of the unsafe levels of lead and instead attempts to divert the attention to something else: the scrutiny being faced by the city. This, however, does nothing to immediately help the people facing the problem.
How many times have you tried to convince your parents that you should be allowed to do something because one of your friends is doing the same thing? This is the classic example of the bandwagon logical fallacy.
You attempt to validate your argument by suggesting that others believe the same.
Advertisements often use the bandwagon logical fallacy. Advertisers show everyone enjoying a drink, a car, a restaurant, or any number of other products and hope to convince you that, because everyone else loves the product, you should too.
Bandwagon example: “Alesha’s parents and Emma’s parents are letting them go on the road trip, so you should let me go too.”
Here’s the example (that I mentioned above) of trying to convince your parents to let you do something simply because other people are doing it.
(Here’s also where your parents would answer, “If Alesha’s parents and Emma’s parents said they could jump off a bridge, does that mean I should let you do it too?”)
Need a few additional tips to improve your persuasion skills? Read How to Write a Persuasive Essay That’s Convincing.
9. Card stacking
If you stack a deck of cards, you make sure that the cards are in a specific order so that you can win the card game. If you’re using the card stacking fallacy, you’re stacking the argument in your favor by only presenting information or data that supports your argument.
In card stacking, you ignore all other relevant information that may counter your argument.
Card stacking example: The new acne medication is one of the best on the market because it clears up acne in record time.
If this statement is true, it could mean that the acne medication is one of the best, but let’s say the writer has ignored the fact that the medication has been proven to also cause other serious side effects.
If this is the case, clearly the writer has stacked the deck to only include favorable arguments and is ignoring other evidence.
10. Emotional appeals
This fallacy is just like it sounds. You appeal to people’s emotions instead of appealing to logic and actual evidence. It can sometimes be used as a scare tactic to make people think about potential negative consequences of not supporting the argument.
Emotional appeals example: You can help provide a nutritious meal for a hungry child for only 52 cents each day. Wouldn’t you want to help a child live?
This type of appeal is common in ads for charitable organizations. In this example, the argument appeals to viewers’ emotions and wants them to feel both sympathy and empathy to help a starving child.
This example also implies that, if you (the viewer) don’t contribute “only 52 cents each day,” you’re standing by and allowing the child to die.
With your new knowledge of how to spot (and avoid) logical fallacies, you’re now on your way to writing an effective paper with logical arguments that even Spock would be proud of.
Avoiding logical fallacies isn’t the only thing to be wary of when writing an argument. You should also make sure you have a strong thesis statement and that you create a powerful argumentative essay outline before you begin drafting your paper.
Struggling to find a topic for your argument paper? Check out 70 Argumentative Essay Topics that Will Put Up a Good Fight.
If you want to read more about logical fallacies, check out these sample essays.
Need some extra guidance on perfecting your Spock-level logic, read these posts:
Kibin editors are also available to check the logic of your arguments, so send your essay to us for a thorough review.
Live long and prosper!
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In the essay I will discuss and give the examples of the logical fallacies, which are the errors in reasoning that are usually used to support arguments. Actually they are the “arguments” that have not enough support to appear good deductive arguments. There are three main categories of logical fallacies: fallacies of relevance, presumption, and ambiguity. Fallacies of relevance rely on premises that may seem to be relevant to the conclusion of the argument but in fact they are not. The major fallacies of relevance are:
1. Appeal to Fear
Appeal to Fear is a fallacy in which premises are not the evidences that support the conclusion but the motivations that are intended to make people believe that conclusion is true because of fear. Such premises are relevant not to the conclusion of the argument but to fears of a person. For example, imagine the situation when person “X” has known compromising evidences of the personal life of person “Y”. He uses them to blackmail person “Y” in purpose to get money. Person “Y” believes that it will be relevant to give money to person “X” because he afraid to be unmasked. However, this does not provide relevant evidence for the conclusion that person “X” deserves the money. Thus the premises are relevant to the fear of the person “X” to loose his dignity.
2. Appeal to Authority
Appeal to Authority or Fear Tactics is a fallacy in which premises are provided by a person who has not enough qualification and/or knowledge to give reliable premises in a specific subject. The conclusion could be true, but the fact that the person, who argued for the statement, is not an expert in a given field does not provide any relevant evidence to believe the conclusion is true. When people believe the conclusion is true thus they believe in authority of that person. Sometimes it is good reason to believe authorities but only when they are really experts in the subject matter in question. But I would like to give an example when the appeal to authority is a fallacy. For example, the president of the USA says that the terrorism is the biggest threat to the American people. We can either accept or reject this claim. It depends on how we believe in authority of the president in the given area.
The next fallacies are related to the fallacies of presumption which arise when an argument is based on a proposition that is assumed to be true but it is false or dubious.
3. Red Herring
Red Herring is a fallacy in which an irrelevant subject is introduced in order to divert attention from the argument or real issues. The irrelevant information is presented in such way that sounds as it is relevant to the real subject, but in fact it is not. For example, the subject of the question is the new regulation to reduce smoking among teenagers. The one speaker may claim that there are already too many regulations and that taxes are too high. Another may claim that when he starts smoking he was only 16 years old and that many his friends were smokers too. But all of these arguments are irrelevant to the main subject, which are will the regulation will help to reduce the number of the infant smokers and if there is a better way to reduce smoking among them.
4. Slippery Slope
Slippery Slope is a fallacy in which person claims that one event have inevitably follow from another without an argument for such a claim. For example, if one person looses the job, then by a gradual series of small steps through breaking up with his spouse, quarrelling with his friends, and starting of drinking, eventually he will commit the crime and get to a prison, too. And if he doesn’t loose his job the last event will also never happen. But in fact if the person looses the job it doesn’t mean that he will get to the prison. Or on the contrary, if he doesn’t loose the job it doesn’t mean that he will never get to the prison.
5. Hasty Generalization
Hasty Generalization is a fallacy in which the conclusion is based on insufficient arguments. For example the person states that in San Diego is always nice weather because the several times he/she was there it was sunny and the temperature was also perfect. Or another person claims that in Russia the most people like to drink vodka, because all of his friends from Russia drink it. In these examples, generalizations were made on the basis of little evidence: several days in San Diego and some friends from Russia. These evidences provide an insufficient basis for the conclusions they are used to support.
6. False Dilemma
False Dilemma arises when the person omits consideration of all reasonable alternatives. Or simply presents fewer alternatives than there are really are. For example the person chooses from going to the disco or to the restaurant in the evening. And he presents it as dilemma for him. But in reality there are more choices. He can go to sport club, to cinema, stay at home or to do something else. Another example, when person says that the evolution is an evidence of man’s creation. But he says nothing about other creation. And by that he uses false dilemma.
The last group of the logical fallacies is the fallacies of ambiguity. They arise when arguments are based on shifts in the meaning of words of phrases from their premises to their conclusions. I don’t discuss them in the essay. But it is important to know all the logical fallacies that we don’t make mistakes while arguing for or from the statement.
- Copi & Cohen (1998). Introduction to Logic. Prentice-Hall, Inc.
- Michael C., (1995). Fallacy Tutorial Pro 3.0 from http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/
- Logical Fallacies in Everyday Use (2005) from http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/
- Engle, Morris S., (2000) .With Good Reason: An Introduction to Informal Fallacies, 6th Ed. New York: St. Martin’s Press
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