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This is a list of academic journals by their submission policies regarding the use of preprints prior to publication, such as the arXiv, and bioRxiv. Journals focusing on physics and mathematics are excluded because they routinely accept manuscripts that have been posted to preprint servers.

Publishers with unified policies[edit]

PublisherPolicy typePolicy textSource
The JAMA NetworkIncompatible"Public dissemination of manuscripts prior to, simultaneous with, or following submission to this journal, such as posting the manuscript on preprint servers or other repositories, is discouraged, and will be considered in the evaluation of manuscripts submitted for possible publication in this journal. The evaluation will involve making a determination of whether publication of the submitted manuscript will add meaningful new information to the medical literature or will be redundant with information already disseminated with the posting of the preprint."

[1]

American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)Compatible"Posting of manuscripts on institutional websites or on recognized community preprint servers, such as bioRxiv, is permitted under our publication policy. Authors must retain copyright to such postings and are encouraged to contact the journal’s editors to discuss their specific manuscript if they have questions. Please note that the AACR does not support posting of revised manuscripts that respond to editorial input and peer review or the final published version to preprint servers."

[2]

American Heart Association (AHA)CompatibleAll AHA journals share the same policy: "Posting of un-refereed manuscripts to a community pre-print server by the author will not be considered prior publication, provided that the following conditions are met: 1) During submission, authors must acknowledge pre-print server deposition and provide any associated accession numbers or DOIs; 2) Versions of a manuscript that have been altered as a result of the peer review process may not be deposited; 3) The pre-print version cannot itself have been indexed in MEDLINE or PubMed; 4) Upon publication, authors are responsible for updating the archived pre-print with a DOI and link to the published version of the article."

[3]

American Institute of Physics (AIP)Compatible"Author-prepared files only may be used; files prepared and/or formatted by AIP Publishing or its vendors (e.g., the PDF, PostScript, or HTML article files published in the online journals and proceedings) may not be used for this purpose."

[4]

American Physical SocietyCompatibleFrom the submission FAQ: "E-print number, e.g., 0804.1718, assigned by the arXiv e-print servers. This can be used at submission to automatically download files from the e-print server."

[5]

American Phytopathological SocietyCompatibleFrom the guidelines to the authors: "Authors are allowed to present and discuss their findings ahead of publication at scientific conferences, on preprint servers (such as arXiv, bioRxiv, or PeerJ preprints among others), in public databases, and other informal communication channels. When submitting a manuscript for review, authors need to disclose preprints, databases, proceedings, or other preliminary communications or depositories. However, abstracts, conferences, or personal communications need not be disclosed. This prior disclosure does not constitute prior publication."

[6]

American Society for MicrobiologyCompatibleFrom the submission FAQ: "ASM journals will consider for publication manuscripts that have been posted in a recognized not-for-profit preprint archive, providing that upon acceptance of the manuscript for publication the author is still able to grant ASM copyright or agree to the terms of an Open Access license and pay the associated fee."

[7]

EMBO PressCompatibleAll four EMBO Press journals share the same policy: "All EMBO Press journals encourage prior publication on recognized non-peer-reviewed, community preprint servers such as arXiv and bioRxiv for commenting by other scientists before - or in parallel with - formal submission to the journal. Articles that have been published in an EMBO Press journal, accepted for publication, or revised to address referee comments should not be posted to bioRxiv (note that doing so would also contravene policy at bioRxiv and Crossref's policy against duplicative DOI assignment). BioRxiv posts will forward link to formally published papers. BioRxiv posts can be directly submitted with minimal effort to any EMBO Press journal. The details of the preprint server concerned and any accession numbers or DOIs must be included in the cover letter accompanying submission of the manuscript."

[8]

Microbiology SocietyCompatibleThe Society’s Licence to Publish requires that articles have not previously been published in part or in whole within a scientific journal, book or similar entity. Deposition of a preprint version on the author’s personal website, in an institutional repository, or in a recognized preprint archive (such as BioRxiv) is not viewed as prior publication, provided that:
  • The version posted has not been peer-reviewed, edited, or typeset.
  • Upon acceptance of their article for publication the author is still able to grant the Society an exclusive Licence to publish the article, or agree to the terms of the OpenMicrobiology agreement and pay the article processing charge (APC).

Authors should inform the journal at the time of submission if and where their article has been previously posted. Authors are required to provide a link to the final published article (known as the Version of Record) alongside the original preprint version. || [9]

Nature Publishing GroupCompatibleThe policy states "Neither conference presentations nor posting on recognized preprint servers constitute prior publication," and an editorial explains: "Nature never wishes to stand in the way of communication between researchers.[...] Communication between researchers includes not only conferences but also preprint servers. The ArXiv preprint server is the medium of choice for (mainly) physicists and astronomers who wish to share drafts of their papers with their colleagues, and with anyone else with sufficient time and knowledge to navigate it. [...] If scientists wish to display drafts of their research papers on an established preprint server before or during submission to Nature or any Nature journal, that's fine by us."[10] and [11]
IOP PublishingCompatibleYou may post your Author’s Original on arXiv.org at any time prior to acceptance by IOP. Before acceptance of the article by an IOP journal you may not attribute it to any IOP journal. After acceptance you should add citation information, IOP’s copyright information and, when appropriate, a link to the online abstract of the Version of Record, along with the following wording: “This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication in [insert name of journal]. IOP Publishing Ltd is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. The Version of Record is available online at [insert DOI].”. If you do post your Author’s Original on arXiv.org and wish to submit it to IOP for peer review you will be able to use the arXiv article ID number in our online submission form instead of uploading the files. We will automatically pick up the files from arXiv.org. Once you have submitted it to IOP, you may not post the Author’s Original on any other institutional or subject repository prior to acceptance, withdrawal or rejection of your article.[12]
Oxford JournalsCompatible"Prior to acceptance for publication in the journal, authors retain the right to make their original version of the article available on their own personal website and/or that of their employer and/or in free public servers of original version articles in their subject area, provided that, upon acceptance, they acknowledge that the article has been accepted for publication as follows: This article has been accepted for publication in [Journal Title] Published by Oxford University Press."[13]
IEEECompatible"Yes. The IEEE recognizes that many authors share their unpublished manuscripts on public sites. Once manuscripts have been accepted for publication by IEEE, an author is required to post an IEEE copyright notice on his preprint. Upon publication, the author must replace the preprint with either 1) the full citation to the IEEE work with Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) or a link to the paper’s abstract in IEEE Xplore, or 2) the accepted version only (not the IEEE published version), including the IEEE copyright notice and full citation, with a link to the

final, published paper in IEEE Xplore." || [14]

ElsevierCompatibleElsevier is generally permissive with respect to authors and electronic preprints. "(i) Authors can share their preprint anywhere at any time. (ii) [They] encourage authors to link from the preprint to their formal publication via its Digital Object Identifier (DOI). (iii) Authors can update their preprints on arXiv or RePEc with their accepted manuscript." [However, please note that Cell Press, The Lancet and some society-owned journals have their own preprint policies available in the Information to Authors.][15]
Springer, incl. SpringerOpen Journals and BioMed Central (BMC)CompatiblePosting a manuscript on a pre-print server such as ArXiv is not considered to be duplicate publication. SpringerOpen/Biomed Central will also consider peer reviewing manuscripts that have been posted on an author's personal or institutional website.[16][17][18]
Taylor & FrancisCompatible"This is your original manuscript (often called a “preprint”), and you can share this as much as you like. If you do decide to post it anywhere, including onto an academic networking site, we would recommend you use an amended version of the wording below to encourage usage and citation of your final, published article."[19]
The Company of BiologistsCompatibleAll five journals of the Company have the same policy: Deposition of research manuscripts prior to submission on community pre-print servers, or of conference presentations online, will not be considered prior publication and will not compromise potential publication in Development/ Journal of Cell Science/ Journal of Experimental Biology/ Disease Models & Mechanisms/ Biology Open. Versions of a manuscript that have altered as a result of the peer review process may not be deposited. Authors should provide details of the deposition in the cover letter accompanying manuscript submission. Authors are requested to update the pre-print server record with a link to the final published version of the article on the journal website.[20][21][22][23][24]
WileyCompatibleWiley believes that in communities where non-commercial preprint servers exist, journals should allow for the submission of manuscripts which have already been made available on such a server. Allowing submission does not, of course, guarantee that an article will be sent out for review; it simply reflects a belief that availability on a preprint server should not be a disqualifier for submission.[25][26]
PLOSCompatible[all PLOS Journals feature this language:] PLOS allows and encourages researchers to share early versions of their original research manuscripts via preprint servers either before or after submission to a PLOS journal. Authors choosing bioRxiv may now concurrently submit directly to select PLOS journals through bioRxiv’s direct transfer to journal service. Posting a research article on a preprint server prior to or concurrently with submission to a PLOS journal will not preclude consideration of manuscripts for peer review in any PLOS journal.e.g. [27]
PeerJCompatiblePeerJ accepts submissions which have previously appeared on preprint servers (including PeerJ PrePrints and arXiv); have previously been presented at conferences; or have previously appeared in other ‘non journal’ venues (for example: blogs or posters).[28]
Rockefeller University PressCompatiblePosting of un-refereed manuscripts to a community preprint server by the author does not preclude consideration for publication. Authors who post to a community preprint server should identity the preprint server and include the accession # or doi in their cover letter. Upon publication, authors should request that community preprint server acknowledge that the article has published and that the journal reference [including DOI link to the published article] be included.[29]
Royal Society PublishingCompatiblewe encourage researchers to deposit early versions of articles they intend to submit to a peer-reviewed journal in appropriate subject repositories...The manuscript submitted to a journal, an earlier draft, or any part thereof may be deposited at any time and made freely available. Posting a preprint on a recognised preprint server or repository does not constitute prior publication or a breach of our media embargo policy, and will prejudice neither the peer review process nor publication in our journals.[30]
Sage PublishingCompatible"Most SAGE journals are published under SAGE's Green Open Access policy, which allows you, as author, to re-use your Contribution as indicated below.... You may share the version of the Contribution you submitted to the journal (version 1) anywhere at any time." Seven journals (two management journals and five medicine journals) are listed as exceptions to the Green Open Access Policy as of January 2018.[93]
American Chemical SocietyCompatible in most cases"Each ACS journal has a specific policy on prior publication that is determined by the ACS Editor in accordance with their final responsibility for editorial decisions relative to their publications. Details of the respective prior publication policies of each ACS journal is available at [31]". On August 10, 2016, ACS announced the development of a chemistry preprint server, ChemRxiv. [32]. On August 14, 2017, ACS announced the release of a fully functioning beta site for ChemRxiv developed with strategic input from the Royal Society of Chemistry, the GDCh, the chemistry community, other societies, funders, and non-profits, open for submissions and available for all readers at [33].[34]
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory PressCompatibleCold Spring Harbor journals only accept papers presenting original research that has not been published previously. Conference presentations or posting unrefereed manuscripts on not-for-profit community preprint servers will not be considered prior publication. Authors are responsible for updating the archived preprint with the journal reference (including DOI), and a link to the published article on the appropriate journal website upon publication.For example: [35]
University of Chicago PressLikely compatibleWe place no conditions on posting a paper intended for submission (but not yet submitted) to one of our journals, except to note that posting a paper online may, in some cases, constitute prior publication – for example, posting to a commercial venue and/or to a venue with a formal review and approval process. Please consult the journal’s editor if you have questions about whether or not a particular use constitutes prior publication.[36]
Canadian Science Publishing (NRC Research Press)CompatibleAuthors retain the right to "post a copy of their submitted manuscript (pre-print) on their own Web site, an institutional repository, a preprint server, or their funding body's designated archive (no embargo period)..." and "... post a copy of their accepted manuscript (post-print) on their own Web site, an institutional repository, a preprint server, or their funding body's designated archive (no embargo period). Authors who archive or self-archive accepted articles are asked to provide a hyperlink from the manuscript to the Journal's Web site."[37]
Cambridge University PressCompatibleAuthor retains (among other rights): The right to deposit Author's Original and Submitted Manuscript Under Review at any time as well as Accepted Manuscript six months after publishing to Non-commercial Subject Repository.[38]
IUCr JournalsCompatibleThe inclusion of material in an informal publication, e.g. a preprint server or a newsletter, does not preclude publication in an IUCr journal.[39]
World ScientificCompatibleFrom author rights: "[authors] may post the preprint anywhere at any time, provided it is accompanied by [an appropriate] acknowledgement"[40]
Emerald Group PublishingCompatible"Emerald does not consider the upload of a preprint to a preprint server prior publication, and would not request its removal. However, this policy is only applicable if: the author declares to the Emerald editor on submission of their article that a preprint is hosted on a preprint server; the author has not assigned copyright to the pre-print server. Where possible, Emerald will take steps to minimize the impact upon the anonymity of the double blind peer review, such as asking editors to strike out any reference to a preprint before sending the paper out to review. If the submitted article is accepted for publication, Emerald would expect the preprint to be amended to state ‘This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication in [insert name of journal]’. Upon publication, the preprint should be amended to include the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to direct the reader to the version of record, hosted on www.emeraldinsight.com."[41]

Individual journals[edit]

JournalPublisherPolicy typePolicy textSource
The BMJ (formerly British Medical Journal)BMJ Publishing Group LtdCompatiblePreprint ("Original manuscript submitted to BMJ.") can be posted.[42]
New England Journal of MedicineIncompatibleNEJM expects that the articles it publishes will not have been published or released elsewhere before they are published in NEJM. The policy page does not explicitly mention preprints; however, the journal has come under public scrutiny.[1][2]
Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's AssociationAlzheimer's Association / ElsevierCompatibleSubmission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information)[3]
FASEB JournalFASEBCompatibleFASEB permits the submission of preprint manuscripts, which will undergo the same review process as “non-preprint” manuscripts. Preprint submissions must meet the following criteria and conditions [...][4]
ScienceAAASCompatibleScience will not consider any original research paper or component of a research paper that has been published or is under consideration for publication elsewhere. Distribution on the Internet may be considered prior publication and may compromise the originality of the paper as a submission to Science, although we do allow posting of research papers on not-for-profit preprint servers such as arxiv.org and bioRxiv. Please contact the editors with questions regarding allowable postings to other servers.[43]
PNASNASCompatiblePosting to Preprint Servers, such as arXiv or bioRxiv, is permitted. See the PNAS statement on prior publication for details, and see section vii for media embargo policies.[5]
Current BiologyCellCompatibleWe will consider papers previously posted on a preprint server such as arXiv or bioRxiv. We are very interested to hear from researchers about their motivations for posting and to discuss with them whether it is the best approach for their paper, so we strongly encourage authors who are planning to submit to us to contact the editors first to discuss their specific paper and situation. This policy only applies to the original submitted version of the paper; we do not support posting of revisions that respond to editorial input and peer review or the final published version to preprint servers. Also, our prepublication publicity policies with regard to coverage in the broader media still apply to studies posted on preprint servers.[44]
Current Plant BiologyElsevierCompatibleAll manuscripts submitted are peer-reviewed before being accepted for publication to Current Plant Biology. By submitting a manuscript to CPB authors state that the manuscript has not being submitted elsewhere, and that it contains unpublished data. Current Plant Biology does not accept work that has already been published elsewhere in the peer-reviewed literature. Activities such as publication of a short abstract; presentation of data to a scientific meeting; posting of the manuscript to any of the author’s personal website, in an online institutional repository or on a freely accessible preprint server such as arXiv or bioRxiv, are not considered prior publication and do not exclude consideration of manuscript by CPB. Publication of a paper in the proceedings of a scientific meeting generally constitutes prior publication
Journal of NeuroscienceCompatibleThe Journal of Neuroscience generally does not accept manuscripts that have been previously published. An exception is made for manuscripts that have been posted on the Internet for the purpose of receiving commentary from the community. Such posting is typically done at a pre-publication repository that has been designed for the purpose, but posting on an institutional web site or other Internet location is acceptable[45]
Journal of Theoretical BiologyCompatibleIn general, Elsevier is permissive with respect to authors and electronic preprints. If an electronic preprint of an article is placed on a public server prior to its submission to an Elsevier journal or where a paper was originally authored as a thesis or dissertation, this is not generally viewed by Elsevier as “prior publication”[46]
CellCellCompatibleWe will consider papers previously posted on a preprint server such as arXiv or bioRxiv. We are very interested to hear from researchers about their motivations for posting and to discuss with them whether it is the best approach for their paper, so we strongly encourage authors who are planning to submit to us to contact the editors first to discuss their specific paper and situation. This policy only applies to the original submitted version of the paper; we do not support posting of revisions that respond to editorial input and peer review or the final published version to preprint servers. Also, our prepublication publicity policies with regard to coverage in the broader media still apply to studies posted on preprint servers.[47]
NeuronCellCompatibleWe will consider papers previously posted on a preprint server such as arXiv or bioRxiv. We are very interested to hear from researchers about their motivations for posting and to discuss with them whether it is the best approach for their paper, so we strongly encourage authors who are planning to submit to us to contact the editors first to discuss their specific paper and situation. This policy only applies to the original submitted version of the paper; we do not support posting of revisions that respond to editorial input and peer review or the final published version to preprint servers. Also, our prepublication publicity policies with regard to coverage in the broader media still apply to studies posted on preprint servers.[48]
Developmental CellCellCompatibleWe will consider papers previously posted on a preprint server such as arXiv or bioRxiv. We are very interested to hear from researchers about their motivations for posting and to discuss with them whether it is the best approach for their paper, so we strongly encourage authors who are planning to submit to us to contact the editors first to discuss their specific paper and situation. This policy only applies to the original submitted version of the paper; we do not support posting of revisions that respond to editorial input and peer review or the final published version to preprint servers. Also, our prepublication publicity policies with regard to coverage in the broader media still apply to studies posted on preprint servers.[49]
Molecular CellCellCompatibleWe will consider papers previously posted on a preprint server such as arXiv or bioRxiv. We are very interested to hear from researchers about their motivations for posting and to discuss with them whether it is the best approach for their paper, so we strongly encourage authors who are planning to submit to us to contact the editors first to discuss their specific paper and situation. This policy only applies to the original submitted version of the paper; we do not support posting of revisions that respond to editorial input and peer review or the final published version to preprint servers. Also, our prepublication publicity policies with regard to coverage in the broader media still apply to studies posted on preprint servers.[50]
Journal of Cell BiologyRockefeller University PressCompatiblePosting of un-refereed manuscripts to a community preprint server by the author does not preclude consideration for publication. Authors who post to a community preprint server should identity the preprint server and include the accession # or doi in their cover letter. Upon publication, authors should request that community preprint server acknowledge that the article has published and that the journal reference [including DOI link to the published article] be included.[51]
Journal of Experimental MedicineRockefeller University PressCompatiblePosting of un-refereed manuscripts to a community preprint server by the author does not preclude consideration for publication. Authors who post to a community preprint server should identity the preprint server and include the accession # or doi in their cover letter. Upon publication, authors should request that community preprint server acknowledge that the article has published and that the journal reference [including DOI link to the published article] be included.[52]
Journal of General PhysiologyRockefeller University PressCompatiblePosting of un-refereed manuscripts to a community preprint server by the author does not preclude consideration for publication. Authors who post to a community preprint server should identity the preprint server and include the accession # or doi in their cover letter. Upon publication, authors should request that community preprint server acknowledge that the article has published and that the journal reference [including DOI link to the published article] be included.[53]
Molecular Biology and EvolutionOxford JournalsCompatibleAuthor can archive a pre-print version. Author cannot archive a post-print version[54]
Nucleic Acids ResearchOxford JournalsCompatibleNAR allows authors to deposit preprints in community preprint servers such as ArXiv.org, provided that entries are updated to acknowledge that the article has been accepted/published by NAR. Please click here for our full self-archiving policy. Our policy towards such archives is kept under review, but we currently do not consider articles that have already been posted in Nature Precedings or PLoS Currents. Authors are encouraged to contact the editorial office if they are in any doubt about prior submission.[55]
Synthetic BiologyOxford JournalsCompatible[Authors] may make their manuscripts available on public preprint servers, if they agree to follow the following policy:
  • Authors must declare their intent to, or the presence of, the initial or the revised manuscript on public preprint servers at the time of submission to Synthetic Biology.
  • All manuscripts under consideration at Synthetic Biology whilst posted on a preprint server must contain the journal name on the top-right corner of the first page in bold letters along with the current status of the manuscript (“In review”, “Revision Invited”, or “Accepted”).
  • Authors must update their manuscripts on pre-print servers diligently so the current version matches the version under consideration at Synthetic Biology. If the manuscript is accepted and published inSynthetic Biology, authors must update the preprint listing with the full citation line in Synthetic Biology, and a link to the final published version.
[6][7][56]
Genes & DevelopmentCold Spring Harbor Laboratory PressCompatibleThe journal only accepts papers that present original research that has not been published previously. Conference presentations or posting unrefereed manuscripts on preprint servers will not be considered prior publication. Authors are responsible for updating the archived preprint with the journal reference (including DOI), and a link to the published article on the Genes & Development website upon publication.[57]
Genome ResearchCold Spring Harbor Laboratory PressCompatibleThe journal only accepts papers that present original research that has not been published previously. Conference presentations or posting unrefereed manuscripts on preprint servers will not be considered prior publication. Authors are responsible for updating the archived preprint with the journal reference (including DOI), and a link to the published article on the Genome Research website upon publication.[58]
Learning & MemoryCold Spring Harbor Laboratory PressCompatibleThe journal only accepts papers that present original research that has not been published previously. Conference presentations or posting unrefereed manuscripts on preprint servers will not be considered prior publication. Authors are responsible for updating the archived preprint with the journal reference (including DOI), and a link to the published article on the Learning & Memory website upon publication.[59]
The LancetElsevierCompatiblePresentation of data at a scientific meeting, as a poster, abstract, orally, on a CD, or as an abstract on the web or on a pre-print server does not conflict with submission to The Lancet[60]
RNACold Spring Harbor Laboratory PressCompatibleThe journal only accepts papers that present original research that has not been published previously. Conference presentations or posting unrefereed manuscripts on preprint servers will not be considered prior publication. Authors are responsible for updating the archived preprint with the journal reference (including DOI), and a link to the published article on the RNA website upon publication.[61]
eLifeCompatibleConference presentations, blog discussions, and deposition to open, online repositories will not affect consideration of a manuscript by eLife. We want to encourage high-quality, informed, and widespread discussion of new research before and after publication, depending on interest in the material and the authors' preferences. So, yes, works posted to arXiv are eligible for submission to eLife.[62]
F1000ResearchF1000CompatibleArticles must not have been published, nor be currently under consideration or review elsewhere, except on a preprint server such as F1000Posters, ArXiv or PeerJ PrePrints.[63]
Frontiers in JournalsCompatibleThis shall not prevent the author from issuing abstracts to conferences or depositing the draft article in a non-commercial, non peer-reviewed preprint archive such as arXiv.org or similar depositaries in accordance with usual academic practice.[64]
Biophysical JournalCellCompatibleBJ will consider for publication manuscripts that have been posted informally on a private website or on ArXiv or BioRxiv, but will not consider manuscripts that have been posted on other preprint servers or "virtual journal" websites. Questions related to this policy should be directed to the Editorial Office.[65]
Journal of BacteriologyAmerican Society for MicrobiologyCompatibleASM journals will consider for publication manuscripts that have been posted in a recognized not-for-profit preprint archive.[66]
Journal of Biology of the CellLikely Incompatible / UnclearUnclear. When submitting a manuscript to BoC it is understood that the data have been neither published nor also submitted for publication elsewhere in any language (excluding abstracts for conferences of less than one page and without illustrations)[67]
The EMBO Journal, EMBO Reports, EMBO Molecular Medicine, Molecular Systems BiologyEMBO PressCompatibleAll EMBO Press journals encourage prior publication on recognized non-peer-reviewed, community preprint servers such as arXiv and bioRxiv for commenting by other scientists before - or in parallel with - formal submission to the journal. Articles that have been published in an EMBO Press journal, accepted for publication, or revised to address referee comments should not be posted to bioRxiv (note that doing so would also contravene policy at bioRxiv and Crossref's policy against duplicative DOI assignment). BioRxiv posts will forward link to formally published papers. BioRxiv posts can be directly submitted with minimal effort to any EMBO Press journal. The details of the preprint server concerned and any accession numbers or DOIs must be included in the cover letter accompanying submission of the manuscript.[68]
Journal of NeurophysiologyCompatibleAuthors submitting to the Journal of Neurophysiology (JN) may submit papers that have been previously posted to preprint servers and other non-peer-reviewed websites.[69]
Molecular & Cellular ProteomicsASBMBCompatibleThe following do not constitute prior or duplicate publication and will not preclude a manuscript from consideration: [...] a manuscript posted in a recognized not-for-profit preprint archive provided that upon acceptance of the manuscript for publication, the author is still able to grant ASBMB copyright or agree to the terms of an Open Access license and pay the associated fee[70]
Journal of Biological ChemistryASBMBCompatibleThe following do not constitute prior or duplicate publication and will not preclude a manuscript from consideration:
  • a manuscript posted in a recognized not-for-profit preprint archive provided that upon acceptance of the manuscript for publication, the author is still able to grant ASBMB copyright or agree to the terms of an Open Access license and pay the associated fee||[71]
ProteomicsWileyCompatibleThere is no obligation upon authors to remove preprints posted to not for profit preprint servers prior to submission.[72]
Journal of Proteome ResearchACScompatibleJournal of Proteome Research considers for publication only original work that has not been previously published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. When submitting a manuscript, an author should inform the Editor of any prior dissemination of the content in print or electronic format. This includes mini papers and preprints on institutional repositories and other Web sites. Electronic posting of conference presentations or posters secured by subscription or institutional logins are not considered prior publication works. Posting of pre-prints to a pre-print server is considered acceptable, but requires citing of the posted paper.[73]
Journal of ProteomicsElsevierCompatibleSubmission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint.[74]
American Journal of Human GeneticsCellCompatiblePer AJHG, the following text applies to engagement with media only: Work intended for submission to AJHG, currently under consideration at AJHG, or in press at AJHG may not be discussed with the media before publication. Providing preprints, granting interviews, discussing data with members of the media, or participating in press conferences in advance of publication without prior approval from the AJHG editorial office may be grounds for rejection.[75][76]
GeneticsCompatibleGenetics allows authors to deposit manuscripts (currently under review or those for intended submission to GENETICS) in non-commercial, pre-print servers such as ArXiv.[77]
DevelopmentThe Company of BiologistsCompatibleDeposition of manuscripts prior to submission on community pre-print servers, or of conference presentations online, will not be considered prior publication and will not compromise potential publication in Development. Versions of a manuscript that have altered as a result of the peer review process may not be deposited. Authors should provide details of the deposition in the cover letter accompanying manuscript submission.[78]
Journal of Cell ScienceThe Company of BiologistsCompatibleDeposition of manuscripts prior to submission on community pre-print servers, or of conference presentations online, will not be considered prior publication and will not compromise potential publication in Journal of Cell Science. Versions of a manuscript that have altered as a result of the peer review process may not be deposited. Authors should provide details of the deposition in the cover letter accompanying manuscript submission.[79]
Journal of Experimental BiologyThe Company of BiologistsCompatibleDeposition of research manuscripts (e.g. Research Articles, Short Communications and Methods & Techniques) prior to submission on community pre-print servers, or of conference presentations online, will not be considered prior publication and will not compromise potential publication in JEB. Versions of a manuscript that have altered as a result of the peer review process may not be deposited. Authors should provide details of the deposition in the cover letter accompanying manuscript submission. Authors are requested to update the pre-print server record with a link to the final published version of the article on the JEB website. Review-type articles (e.g. Reviews, Commentaries) may not be posted before publication in JEB.[80]
Disease Models & MechanismsThe Company of BiologistsCompatibleDeposition of research manuscripts (e.g. Research and Resource Articles) prior to submission on community pre-print servers, or of conference presentations online, will not be considered prior publication and will not compromise potential publication in DMM. Versions of a manuscript that have altered as a result of the peer review process may not be deposited. Authors should provide details of the deposition in the cover letter accompanying manuscript submission. Authors are requested to update the pre-print server record with a link to the final published version of the article on the DMM website. Review-type articles (e.g. Reviews, Commentaries) may not be posted before publication in DMM.[81]
Biology Open (BiO)The Company of BiologistsCompatibleDeposition of research manuscripts (e.g. Research Articles and Methods & Techniques) prior to submission on community pre-print servers, or of conference presentations online, will not be considered prior publication and will not compromise potential publication in BiO. Versions of a manuscript that have altered as a result of the peer review process may not be deposited. Authors should provide details of the deposition in the cover letter accompanying manuscript submission. Authors are requested to update the pre-print server record with a link to the final published version of the article on the BiO website.[82]
EvolutionCompatibleEvolution allows authors to deposit manuscripts (currently under review or those for intended submission to Evolution) in non-commercial, pre-print servers such as ArXiv. The deposited version must be the author version (before peer-review). 12 months after publication in Evolution one can deposit the final version.[83]
The Plant CellASPBCompatibleThe Plant Cell will review manuscripts that include data posted on an author’s website or posted on preprint servers such as the bioRxiv. Final published manuscripts will reside on the Journal site. Once the published article has appeared online at the Journal site, a toll-free link providing barrier-free access to the HTML and PDF versions of the article will be e-mailed to all authors. These links may be deposited in open access institutional repositories.[84]
Plant PhysiologyASPBCompatiblePlant Physiology will review manuscripts that include data posted on an author’s website or posted on preprint servers such as the bioRxiv. Final published manuscripts will reside on the Journal site. Once the published article has appeared online at the Journal site, a toll-free link providing barrier-free access to the HTML and PDF versions of the article will be e-mailed to all authors. These links may be deposited in open access institutional repositories.[85]
BioessaysWileyCompatibleWiley believes that in communities where non-commercial preprint servers exist, journals should allow for the submission of manuscripts which have already been made available on such a server.[86]
Molecular Biology of the CellAmerican Society for Cell BiologyCompatibleThe following activities prior to submission of a manuscript to MBoC do not constitute prior publication and do not preclude consideration of the manuscript by MBoC: publication of a short abstract; presentation of data at a scientific meeting or in a Webcast of such a meeting; or posting of a manuscript on an author's personal website, in an online institutional repository, or on a freely accessible preprint server such as arXiv or bioRxiv.[87]
MPMIAPSCompatibleAuthors are allowed to present their findings ahead of publication on preprint servers. When submitting a manuscript for review, authors need to disclose preprints, databases, proceedings, or other preliminary communications or depositories. This prior disclosure does not constitute prior publication.[88]
PhytopathologyAPSCompatibleAuthors are allowed to present their findings ahead of publication on preprint servers. When submitting a manuscript for review, authors need to disclose preprints, databases, proceedings, or other preliminary communications or depositories. This prior disclosure does not constitute prior publication.[89]
Plant DiseaseAPSCompatibleAuthors are allowed to present their findings ahead of publication on preprint servers. When submitting a manuscript for review, authors need to disclose preprints, databases, proceedings, or other preliminary communications or depositories. This prior disclosure does not constitute prior publication.[90]
PhytobiomesAPSCompatibleAuthors are allowed to present their findings ahead of publication on preprint servers. When submitting a manuscript for review, authors need to disclose preprints, databases, proceedings, or other preliminary communications or depositories. This prior disclosure does not constitute prior publication.[91]
Journal of Clinical InvestigationASCI[92]IncompatibleThe JCI considers the following to be prior publication and therefore unacceptable:
  • any printed or online material describing the findings, methods, or results of a submitted/in-press manuscript in excess of 400 words;
  • any published tables or illustrations that in any way duplicate the content of another manuscript;
  • any posters shown other than at a professional meeting and leaflets distributed other than to a professional audience (...)
[93]
Journal of Statistical SoftwareASACompatibleBased on a personal e-mail communication with the Editor/Publisher on 2015/08/07. Relevant quote from the communication: "Drafts may appear prior to publication on pre-print servers such as arXiv or bioRxiv."
Medical Decision Making (and Medical Decision Making Policy & Practice)SMDM[94]CompatibleTo reduce the potential for duplicate publication, one of Medical Decision Making’s pre-submission requirements is author verification of the following statement: “Confirm that the manuscript has been submitted solely to this journal and is not published, in press, or submitted elsewhere.” However, there are two exceptions to this rule at MDM: (1) documents that were previously published on the authors’ institutional Web site but have never been peer reviewed, and (2) documents that have functioned in an institutional or government setting as background material, official “working papers,” or technical briefs but have never been peer reviewed....[95]
Molecular BiotechnologySpringerIncompatibleBased on personal e-mail communication with Publisher on 2016/12/19. Relevant quote from communication: "No is not compatible (if submitted in BioRxiv) we only publish original articles."
Open Access Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic PlantsMedicinal and Aromatic Plants Association of IndiaCompatibleAuthors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work[89]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

ResearchGate is no longer reliable: leniency towards ghost journals may decrease its impact on the scientific community

Aamir Raoof Memon  ( Institute of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Peoples University of Medical & Health Sciences for Women, Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan. )

Abstract

ResearchGate has been regarded as one of the most attractive academic social networking site for scientific community. It has been trying to improve user-centered interfaces to gain more attractiveness to scientists around the world. Display of journal related scietometric measures (such as impact factor, 5-year impact, cited half-life, eigenfactor) is an important feature in ResearchGate. Open access publishing has added more to increased visibility of research work and easy access to information related to research. Moreover, scientific community has been much interested in promoting their work and exhibiting its impact to others through reliable scientometric measures. However, with the growing market of publications and improvements in the field of research, this community has been victimized by the cybercrime in the form of ghost journals, fake publishers and magical impact measures. Particularly, ResearchGate more recently, has been lenient in its policies against this dark side of academic writing. Therefore, this communication aims to discuss concerns associated with leniency in ResearchGate policies and its impact of scientific community.
Keywords: Impact factor, Journal, Open access publishing, Ethics in publishing, Research misconduct.


Introduction
Social networking plays a very eminent role in the modern era of globalization. By its introduction to scientific community through academic networking sites like ResearchGate, Academia.edu and Mendeley; researchers around the globe have been attracted more to it and have been able to display and share their research work. Open access publishing has added more to increased visibility of research work and easy access to information related to research, and scientists have been highly inspired by this, with reputable organizations taking initiatives and getting involved in developing the scenario further in a better way. However, there has also been a dark side to academic writing due to emergence of fake publishers, magical scientific indicators (that do not really exist in real terms in the research world) and bogus websites. The researchers almost always feel proud and eager to display their scientometric indicators to the scientific community but this notion has been blurred by introduction of academic pollution (in the form of predatory journals and fake impact organizations) in research world particularly, if this pollution is able to find a space in platforms like the ResearchGate. This communication aims to discuss concerns associated with leniency in ResearchGate policies and its impact on the scientific community.


ResearchGate
ResearchGate was initiated in 2008 as an academic social networking site aiming to help researchers cooperate, communicate and share information.1 An important feature of ResearchGate is social network support, which helps effective scientific communication among its members.1 It ensures that the publications are visible and accessible to the scientific community.2
Recently, Bill Gates and others have invested 35 million US$ in ResearchGate.3 This reflects a significant interest in social networking tools in the field of scientific communication. Currently, ResearchGate reports over 8 million users and it appears to be the most popular social networking site. The substantial contribution comes from fields of medicine, life and physical sciences. Moreover, social sciences and humanities are less represented in it.1 ResearchGate leads over the other academic networking sites like Academia.edu and Mendeley by providing various user-centric interfaces to scientific audience resembling Facebook and LinkedIn.1,3 ResearchGate is free, and it allows its members to upload or list their publications on their profile page with their brief information.1 Metadata on publications, article level metrics and the recent initiative "RG score" is also available for each member.1,3 On the journal level, ResearchGate displays current impact factor of journals and other scientometric indicators.


Open Access Publishing and Ghost Journals
With the goal to accelerate research and remove barriers in accessing research, open access publishing officially started in 2002 and gained immense popularity.4 Presently, there are over 10,000 journals registered in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) receiving significant contribution from researchers around the world.4 These journals are freely accessible to readers, with varying range of article processing charges (APCs), supported by associations and organizations, and flexible to authors from low or middle-income countries.
Over the last few years, research community has been a victim of cybercrime-the dark side of scientific writing. This "academic pollution" had targeted many scientists after the emergence of predatory and hijacked journals. Jeffery Beall in 2010 presented the term predatory journals to the research world with 20 predatory publishers in his first list which has risen to over 700 in 2015 (Beall's List of Standalone Journals: https://scholarlyoa.com/individual-journals/).5 Predatory journals exhibit questionable academic quality and unprofessionally exploit the open access model.4,6 Another term "hijacked journals" was coined by Mehrdad Jalalian in 2012.7 These journals mislead the researchers by abusing the name and ISSN of reputable journals. They have grown from 3 to 90 titles from 2011 to 2015 at a growth rate of 9000%.8 Most of these journals are managed in low and middle income countries like India, Pakistan, and Nigeria with addresses from UK and USA claimed by them.9 Predatory and hijacked journals, I call them "ghost journals", are primarily focused on money making with little to no peer-review system and editorial board with poor or no established academic credibility.9 Moreover, they claim being indexed in many non-scientific sites like Docstoc and Scribd.6 Hijacked journals are more likely to receive contributions than predatory journals because of their titles mimicking reputable journals.10 In most of the cases, non-English journals and those journals with difficult to find website are good options for hijackers. Moreover, they are present temporarily (after being threatened for legal action by original journal) unlike predatory journals.10 These ghost journals and publishers are not registered legally by any agency or institution however, most of the predatory journals even display impact factor on their websites and claim to have been listed in well-known agencies like SCOPUS and Web of Knowledge where they in fact, never appeared.8,9 The menace of predatory journals is evident from increasing number of spams and emails received by members of scientific community.9 Most often, young and inexperienced researchers who are anxious to get recognized by the scientific community and expand the list of their research papers, get invitations by ghost journals to publish their work and are the common victims of these  ghost journals.9 Moreover, the authors victimized by ghost journals mostly are from developing countries such as India, Pakistan, Nigeria and some African and Middle Eastern countries.11 The main reason behind this is the low-standard submission acceptance and quick and easy publishing model used by these journals. There have been significant contribution by Jeffrey Beall to the recognition of predatory journals and Jalalian on the topic of hijacked journals through compilation of the list of such journals.7,12


Magical Impact Agencies
Recent appearance of questionable agencies and websites is a serious consequence of predatory journals (Table-1)

These websites claim to measure the impact of scientific journals by providing bogus magical impact factor.6,9 They typically misguide the researchers by using similar names to the reputed scientometrics and misuse the expression "Impact Factor".6


ResearhGate and Academic Pollution
In the recent years, ResearchGate has been lenient in its policies and has created a space for predatory journals to enter the website. Some of the journals displaying fake impact factor on their website (previously mentioned) are available in ResearchGate with an impact factor-a misleading point for scientists who rely on ResarchGate. One reason for this may be related to the researchers who are unaware of the quality of the journal of their published work (either it is reputable and genuine journal or a fake/ghost one), readily sharing their work on ResearchGate for increasing its visibility to their peers. Particularly, articles published in predatory journals are equally visible on ResearchGate as that of reputable journals. Another reason, that I suspect in this case, is absence of policies by ResearchGate on accepting manuscripts — they probably do not check or filter the uploaded content. This may be part of the explanation for the problem of identifying ghost journals and their content on ResearchGate.Moreover, journals listed in the Beall's list of predatory publishers can also be found on ResearchGate with an impact factor (Figure-1 and 2)




Some of the examples of ghost journals found on ResearchGate are mentioned in Table-2

This may possibly lead to a suspicion that ResearchGate is no longer reliable to scientific community and in fact, is giving room to ghost journals to get recognized as reliable and good quality journals. If it persists longer, ResearchGate is soon going to lose its attractiveness and impact on the scientific community. It is worth saying that more researchers will be victims of these ghost journals if this is done-a point to step forward and take action. The necessary actions can be taken at both levels i.e. by the researchers and by those responsible for ResearchGate. Authors should be cautious before submitting their work to any journal. All the members of scientific community should be aware of the Beall's list of predatory journals and Jalalian's list of hijacked journals. Secondly, journal selection should not be solely based on the impact factor as it is not the sole criteria for assessing journal quality, other factors like acceptance rate, editorial board, quality of articles published, publisher, and APCs of the journal should also be taken into consideration. "Be iNFORMEd: Checklist" by Duke University is an important resource in this context (http://guides.mclibrary.duke.edu/ beinformed). It is important to mention that the impact factor has been misused to assess the quality of journals since it was meant to be used by libraries to select which journals to purchase and which not to. This metric should not be presented on the first page of reputable journals as it may be misleading to inexperienced researchers to distinguish between the scientific and ghost journals. Finally, authors may also try for journal selection resources like Think Check Submit Guide (http://thinkchecksubmit.org/), Edanz Journal Selector (https://www.edanzediting.com/journal-selector), Elsevier Journal Finder (http://journalfinder.elsevier.com/), Find the right journal - BioMed Central (http://www.biomedcentral.com/submissions/find-the-right-journal), Springer journal selector (http://www.springer.com/ gp/authors-editors/journal-author/journal-author-helpdesk/preparation/1276), JournalGuide by Research Square (https://www.journalguide.com/), JANE-journal author name estimator (http://jane.biosemantics.org/), and EndNote Web Match (https://www.myendnoteweb.com/ EndNoteWeb.html?func=journalDetails&cat=details&). Moreover, experienced researchers and supervisors should inform and teach young researchers on this issue. On the other hand, those responsible for ResearchGate should set some policy and parameters for quality check of uploaded content based on the Beall's list of predatory journals, Jalalian's list of hijacked journals and Journal Citation Reports of Thomson and Reuters (http://wokinfo.com/ products_tools/analytical/jcr/). Meanwhile, ResearchGate officials should block the content of ghost journals mentioned in Beall's list and Jalalian's list and not listed in JCR of Thomson & Reuters.


Conclusive Remarks
Scientific community and networking platforms like ResearchGate should take a serious note of the fact that considerations given to ghost journals and putting them in the row of reliable and quality journals might create an alarming situation in future. This dark side of academic writing should be hampered, before it finds more space and prevails, as it would not only affect the scientists only but also the community as a whole.


Conflict of Interest: Nil.
Disclosure: Nil.
Funding: Nil.


References
1.Thelwall M, Kousha K. ResearchGate articles: Age, discipline, audience size and impact. J Assoc Inf Sci Technol. 2016.
2.Thelwall M, Kousha K. ResearchGate: Disseminating, communicating, and measuring Scholarship? J Assoc Inf Sci Technol. 2015; 66: 876-89.
3.Hoffmann CP, Lutz C, Meckel M. A relational altmetric? Network centrality on ResearchGate as an indicator of scientific impact. J Assoc Inf Sci Technol. 2016; 67:765-75.
4.Günaydin GP, Dogan NÖ. A Growing Threat for Academicians: Fake and Predatory Journals. J Acad Emerg Med. 2015; 14: 94-6.
5.Beall J. Medical Publishing Triage - Chronicling Predatory Open Access Publishers. Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2013; 2:47-9.
6.Gutierrez FR, Beall J, Forero DA. Spurious alternative impact factors: The scale of the problem from an academic perspective. Bioessays. 2015; 37:474-6.
7.Jalalian M, Dadkhah M. The full story of 90 hijacked journals from August 2011 to June 2015. Geographica Pannonica. 2015; 19: 73-87.
8.Dadkhah M. Predatory Journals/Publishers are not Sole Questionable Matter in the Open Access Scholarly Publishing, They Are Part of Problem. BMJ. [Online] [cited 2015 May 14]. Available from; URL: http://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h2470/rr
9.Lakhotia SC. Predatory journals and academic pollution. Current Science. 2015; 108: 1407-8.
10.Dadkhah M, Borchardt G. Hijacked journals are emerging as a challenge for scholarly publishing. Aesthet Surg J. 2016; 36:739-41.
11.Xia J, Harmon JL, Connolly KG, Donnelly RM, Anderson MR, Howard HA. Who publishes in "predatory" journals? J Assoc Inf Sci Technol. 2015;66:1406-17.
12.Beall J. Beall's List of Standalone Journals. [Online][Cited 2016 March 23]. Available from; URL: https://scholarlyoa.com/ individual-journals/.


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