For those of us who don’t deal in fonts every day, the number of fonts on offer can seem overwhelming – but it doesn’t have to be.
Serif vs sans serif
Fonts generally fall into two categories – serif and sans serif. Those with small projecting features are known as serifs. Examples include Times New Roman, Garamond and Bookman Old Style.
Fonts that lack these small projecting features are called sans serif (from the French for ‘without’, but usually pronounced ‘sanns’ by printers). Arial, Helvetica and Verdana are the most common. They’re usually used online, but are becoming increasingly acceptable in printed materials.
Print vs screen
The generally accepted wisdom is that serifed typefaces are better for printed material, because the serifs guide the reader’s eye along the line.
However, as the eye doesn’t travel in a smooth line when reading, but in quick jumps known as ‘saccades’, this argument is questionable. In fact, it’s so traditional to use serif for printed material that using sans serif can be a statement of modernity or even (small) rebellion.
Serif fonts aren’t usually used for text intended to be read on screen because on lower-resolution screens the serifs can look fuzzy and inhibit readability. However, some serif fonts, such as Georgia, have been specifically designed to display well even on low-resolution screens (and you can see it in action on the New York Times website).
So are serif fonts more readable than sans serif, or vice versa? In a word, no. Ask a graphic designer or an editor, and they’re almost certain to give you their personal opinion one way or the other, but studies into readability generally find little or no difference. As user experience consultant Alex Poole says, ‘if there is a difference, it is too small to worry about’.
Reader expectation, however, does have an impact on readability. Hand someone a 50-page report in a sans serif font, and the unfamiliarity of it may well strike a blow. Likewise, people don’t expect to read newspaper-style fonts online. If you’re using one as a conscious style choice, go for it – just be sure it’s justified. (By which we mean that you have justification for it, not that it fits snugly to both sides of the page.)
It’s worth noting that as the quality and resolution of computer screens increases, this distinction is likely to fade. For now, though, it remains.
Fonts often look their best when paired in a complementary fashion, where one is used for headlines and another for body text. A good rule of thumb is to use serif for headlines if the body text is in sans serif, and vice versa. But fonts from the same ‘family’, such as Lucida Sans and Lucida Bright, also often work well together. As a general rule, don’t use more than two fonts on a page, unless you’re confident you have good reason. For variation, use different weights or styles within the same family.
When pairing fonts, have a quick look at the proportion of the ascenders and descenders (the tails on your ds and ps, for example) in relation to the letters as a whole. Try to use fonts with similar proportions.
For something that will be read online, the default safe option is Arial for the body text and Times New Roman for the headline. Or you could try Helvetica for the body and Century Schoolbook for headings. For print, if you’re fed up with Times New Roman, try Garamond for the body text and contrasting it with Frutiger or Futura for the headlines. Font availability varies depending on your software and whether you’re using a PC or a Mac, so for comprehensive lists, see Will Harris’s list of font pairs and Douglas Bonneville’s 19 top fonts in 19 combinations.
The final decision is a matter of judging which one looks most suitable for your message. People can have very different opinions on what ‘looks right’, so there are few hard rules. Generally, serif typefaces appear more traditional, and sans serif typefaces look more modern.
Give some thought to the impression you want to give (and if you’re in any doubt about the impact a font can have, take a quick scroll through these typographical posters). Take into account the intended audience, your own brand identity and the surrounding colour and design. Fonts can have quite distinct personalities. Helvetica, for example, is clean, crisp and neutral. Gill Sans has a 1950s Voice of Authority feeling to it (the BBC use it, and it’s also very close to the now-ubiquitous Keep Calm and Carry On poster). Times New Roman has a certain sense of ‘I’ve not given it any thought, so I’ve used Word’s default font’.
Bear in mind, though, that if the font you want isn’t available in standard packages and you have to buy it in especially, it’s possible that your readers – if they’re reading online – won’t have access to it. In which case, their software or browser will use a substitute font, and there’s no telling how that might change the overall presentation. So, unless your document will be read only in print or on PDF, keep it simple and only use widely available fonts.
Experiment with different combinations, but unless you’re thinking of a whole brand overhaul (in which case, contact a designer, and be prepared for a long and impassioned conversation) don’t overthink it. If it looks good, it’s easy to read and it’ll work on most computers, you can’t go far wrong.
The Modern Language Association (MLA) provides explicit, specific recommendations for the margins and spacing of academic papers. (See: Document Format.) But their advice on font selection is less precise: “Always choose an easily readable typeface (e.g. Times New Roman) in which the regular style contrasts clearly with the italic, and set it to a standard size (e.g. 12 point)” (MLA Handbook, 7th ed., §4.2).
So which fonts are “easily readable” and have “clearly” contrasting italics? And what exactly is a “standard” size?
For academic papers, an “easily readable typeface” means a serif font, and a “standard” type size is between 10 and 12 point.
Use A Serif Font
Serifs are the tiny strokes at the end of a letter’s main strokes. Serif fonts have these extra strokes; sans serif fonts do not. (Sans is French for “without.”) Serif fonts also vary the thickness of the letter strokes more than sans serifs, which have more uniform lines.
Books, newspapers, and magazines typically set their main text in a serif font because they make paragraphs and long stretches of text easier to read. Sans serifs (Arial, Calibri, Helvetica, Gill Sans, Verdana, and so on) work well for single lines of text, like headings or titles, but they rarely make a good choice for body text.
Moreover, most sans serifs don’t have a true italic style. Their “italics” are really just “obliques,” where the letters slant slightly to the right but keep the same shape and spacing. Most serifs, on the other hand, do have a true italic style, with distinctive letter forms and more compact spacing.
Since they’re more readable for long passages and have sharper contrast in their italics, you should always use a serif font for the text of an academic paper.
Use A Readable Type Size
The standard unit for measuring type size is the point. A point is 1⁄72 of an inch, roughly one pixel on a computer screen. The point size of a font tells you the size of the “em square” in which your computer displays each letter of the typeface. How tall or wide any given letter is depends on how the type designer drew it within the em square, thus a font’s height and width can vary greatly depending on the design of the typeface. That’s why if you set two fonts at the same point size, one usually looks bigger than the other.
Compare the following paragraphs, both set at 12 point but in different fonts:
For body text in academic papers, type sizes below 10 point are usually too small to read easily, while type sizes above 12 point tend to look oversized and bulky. So keep the text of your paper between 10 and 12 point.
Some teachers may require you to set your whole text at 12 point. Yet virtually every book, magazine, or newspaper ever printed for visually unimpaired grown-ups sets its body type smaller than 12 point. Newspapers use even smaller type sizes. The New York Times, for example, sets its body text in a perfectly legible 8.7 point font. So with proper spacing and margins, type sizes of 11 or 10 point can be quite comfortable to read.
I usually ask my students to use Century Schoolbook or Palatino for their papers. If your teacher requires you to submit your papers in a particular font, do so. (Unless they require you to use Arial, in which case drop the class.)
One thing to consider when choosing a font is how you submit your essay. When you submit a hard copy or a PDF, your reader will see the text in whatever typeface you use. Most electronic submission formats, on the other hand, can only use the fonts available on the reader’s computer. So if you submit the paper electronically, be sure to use a font your instructor has.
What follows is a list of some widely available, highly legible serif fonts well-suited for academic papers. I’ve divided them into three categories: Microsoft Word Fonts, Mac OS Fonts, and Universal Fonts.
Microsoft Word Fonts
Microsoft Word comes with lots of fonts of varying quality. If your teacher asks you to submit your paper in Word format, you can safely assume they have Word and all the fonts that go with it.
Morris Fuller Benton designed Century Schoolbook in 1923 for elementary-school textbooks, so it’s a highly readable font. It’s one of the best fonts available with Microsoft Word. Because it’s so legible, U. S. Supreme Court Rule 33.1.b madates that all legal documents submitted to the Court be set in Century Schoolbook or a similar Century-style font.
Hermann Zapf designed Palatino in 1948 for titles and headings, but its elegant proportions make it a good font for body text. Named for Renaissance calligrapher Giambattista Palatino, this font has the beauty, harmony, and grace of fine handwriting. Palatino Linotype is the name of the font included with Microsoft Word; Mac OS includes a version of the same typeface called simply Palatino.
Microsoft Word includes several other fonts that can work well for academic essays: Bell MT, Californian FB, Calisto MT, Cambria, Garamond, and Goudy Old Style.
Mac OS Fonts
Apple has a well-deserved reputation for design excellence which extends to its font library. But you can’t count on any of these Mac OS fonts being on a computer that runs Windows.
Finding his inspiration in the typography of Pierre Simon Fournier, Matthew Carter designed Charter in 1987 to look good even on crappy mid-80s fax machines and printers. Its ability to hold up even in low resolution makes Charter work superbly well on screen. Bitstream released Charter under an open license, so you can add it to your font arsenal for free. You can download Charter here.
In 1991 Apple commissioned Jonathan Hoefler to design a font that could show off the Mac’s ability to handle complex typography. The result was Hoefler Text, included with every Mac since then. The bold weight of Hoefler Text on the Mac is excessively heavy, but otherwise it’s a remarkable font: compact without being cramped, formal without being stuffy, and distinctive without being obtrusive. If you have a Mac, start using it.
Iowan Old Style, designed by Iowan sign painter John Downer, emulates 15th century Venetian typefaces by Nicolas Jenson and Francesco Griffo, but it blends these designs with more modern features that make it ideal for extended, immersive reading. Like Charter, Iowan Old Style comes with the iBooks app in OS X Mavericks (released in 2013). If you’re running an older version of Mac OS, you won’t have these fonts.
Other Mac OS fonts you might consider are Athelas (another iBooks font), Baskerville, and Palatino.
Anyone you send your document to will have these fonts because they’re built in to both Windows and Mac OS.
Matthew Carter designed Georgia in 1993 for maximum legibility on computer screens. Georgia looks very nice on web sites, but in print it can look a bit clunky, especially when set at 12 point. Like Times New Roman, it’s on every computer and is quite easy to read. The name “Georgia” comes from a tabloid headline: “Alien Heads Found in Georgia.”
Times New Roman is, for better or worse, the standard font for academic manuscripts. Many teachers require it because it’s a solid, legible, and universally available font. Stanley Morison designed it in 1931 for The Times newspaper of London, so it’s a very efficient font and legible even at very small sizes. Times New Roman is always a safe choice. But unless your instructor requires it, you should probably use something a bit less overworked.
Page Last Updated: 23 October 2017