Author Date Page Citation Bibliography

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How to reference a Website using the Chicago Manual of Style

The most basic entry for a website consists of the author name(s), page title, website title, web address, and date accessed.

Last Name, First Name. “Page Title.” Website Title. Web Address (retrieved Date Accessed).

Smith, John. “Obama inaugurated as President.” CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/01/21/obama_inaugurated/index.html (accessed February 1, 2009).

The first author’s name should be reversed, with a comma being placed after the last name and a period after the first name (or any middle name). Titles and affiliations associated with the author should be omitted. A suffix, such as a roman numeral or Jr./Sr., should appear after the author’s given name, preceded by a comma.

For a page with two or more authors, list them in the order as they appear on the website. Only the first author’s name should be reversed, while the others are written in normal order. Separate author names by a comma.

Smith, John, and Jane Doe. “Obama inaugurated as President.” CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/01/21/obama_inaugurated/index.html (accessed February 1, 2009).

If no author is available, begin the citation with the website owner.

Cable News Network. “Obama inaugurated as President.” CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/01/21/obama_inaugurated/index.html (accessed February 1, 2009).

The full page title, which is followed by a period, should be placed within quotation marks. Place the period within the quotation marks. Then include the website title, followed by a period. If the website title is not available, include the website owner in its place.

Smith, John. “Obama inaugurated as President.” Cable News Network. http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/01/21/obama_inaugurated/index.html (accessed February 1, 2009).

Include the web address of the page. Next, place the text “accessed” and the date on which you accessed the website (written in the format of “month day, year”) in parentheses. Conclude the citation with a period after the parentheses.

For informal websites (such as home page or fan websites) or websites without formal titles, use descriptive phrases in your citation in place of page or website titles.

If the website has a print counterpart, such as the website for a newspaper, place the website title in italics.

Smith, John. “Catalonia Declares Independence from Spain.” New York Times. http://www.newyorktimes.com/POLITICS/11/21/catalonia_spain.html (accessed February 1, 2017).

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Author-Date vs. Note and Bibliography

 

The Chicago Style uses two methods for citing resources. The Notes and Reference List (Bibliography) method uses numbered footnotes or end notes to cite resources and usually a corresponding bibliography at the end of the paper. The Author-Date method uses in-text parenthetical references and a corresponding "Reference List," similar to APA and MLS style. You should check with your instructor or class syllabus to determine which method to use.

 

Parenthetical references are used within the text of your paper to lead the reader to your reference list. Typically the parenthetical reference will consist of the author's last name followed by the publication date of the article you are citing. Some examples of parenthetical references are below.

 

√ Please consult the Chicago Manual of Stylefor more advanced and complex examples.

 

√ The basic technique is to weave references into the text of your paper as you are making a point or presenting an idea.

 

Author-Date

 

Examples

 

In his study on brown algae Smith (2006), found that...

 

In 2006, Smith found that brown algae...

 

Brown algae ihas been found to be detrimental to the shellfish harvest (Smith 2006).

 

Author cited subsequently

 

Brown algae ihas been found to be detrimental to the shellfish harvest (Smith, 2006, 24-38). The oxygen intake of scallops was measured to be lower in brown tide infested waters (34).

 

The Chicago Style uses two methods for citing resources. The Notes and Bibliography method uses numbered footnotes or endnotes to cite resources and usually a corresponding bibliography at the end of the paper. The Author-Date method uses in-text parenthetical references and a corresponding "Reference List," similar to APA and MLS style. You should check with your instructor or class syllabus to determine which method to use.

 

The Note and Bibliography format is helpful for reseachers that wish or need to elaborate on certain resources. The Notes are usually numbered within the text as supersripted text. The corresponding footnote or endnote with the full citation is placed at the foot or end of the section or paper. There is more flexibility to add additional infomation about a resource within the note field. See the example below from the Journal of American History that is using footnotes.

 

 

√ Use the abbreviation Ibid. to repeat a citation to the same resource.

 

√ Do not use Ibid if Note contains more than one citation.

 

Example:

 

7. Alistair Bruce and Rodion Skovoroda, Bankers’ Bonuses and the Financial Crisis: Context, Evidence and the Rhetoric–policy Gap, Business History, 55 (2013): 139-160, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00076791.2012.715283.

 

8. Ibid., 143.

 

9. Ibid.

 

10. Ibid., 155-160.

 

√ Please consult the Chicago Manual of Stylefor more advanced and complex examples.

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